Two New Federal Court Decisions

As we await with bated breath the Supreme Court ruling in the North Carolina and Maryland cases, the world of redistricting litigation has not been standing still. In the past few weeks, federal court rulings have been handed down in Michigan and Ohio that strongly back the position that partisan gerrymandering is unconstitutional and that propose strong remedies.

In the Michigan case, LWV of Michigan v. Benson, the federal District Court found unanimously for the plaintiffs’ claim that 34 Congressional, State House, and State Senate districts were in violation of the U.S. Constitution’s First and Fourteenth Amendment guarantees of freedom of association and equal protection under the law. As with the Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and North Carolina cases, the analysis from the plaintiffs relied on several different quantitative analyses of the maps’ partisan biases, which we will be discussing here in future articles. The analyses use different measures of the partisan bias reflected in a particular map together with a simulation using a very large number of randomly generated maps to assess the likelihood that the map in question was drawn with the intent of creating partisan bias.

The forcefulness of the verdict is indicated by the remedy that the judges imposed. Not only does the remedy require new maps, but it also requires early elections in several of the State Senate districts. In addition, Michigan is one of the states that passed a voter initiative in the 2018 election to create an independent redistricting commission. So whatever the outcome of the court cases, Michigan will have its independent commission drawing district lines in 2021.

Meanwhile, less than a week later, a federal District Court found Ohio’s Congressional map unconstitutional on similar grounds and required new maps to be in place by June 14. Both cases will go forward to the Supreme Court, and both will await the ruling in the pending Maryland and North Carolina cases before being heard. And Ohio, too, is a state where voters approved a redistricting process that requires bipartisan approval of maps for 2021.

Published by Matthew Saltzman, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Clemson University. President, the COIN-OR Foundation, Inc. Director for Redistricting, League of Women Voters of South Carolina

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